Both English and Russian have influence over Bulgarian computing vocabulary. However, in many cases the borrowed terminology is translated, and not transcribed phonetically. Combined with the use of Cyrillic this can make it difficult to recognize loanwords. For example the Bulgarian term for motherboard is 'дънна платка' (IPA /danna platka/ or literally "bottom board" ).
компютър /kompiutar/ - computer
твърд диск /tvard disk/ - hard disk
дискета /disketa/ - floppy disk; like the French disquette
уеб сайт /web sait/ - web site; but also "интернет страница" /internet stranitsa/
The Faroese language has a sparse scientific vocabulary based on the language itself. Many Faroese scientific words are borrowed and/or modified versions of especially Nordic and English equivalents. The vocabulary is constantly evolving and thus new words often die out, and only a few survive and become widely used. Examples of successful words include e.g. "telda" (computer), "kurla" (at sign) and "ambætari" (server).
See also: Franglais
In French there are some generally accepted English loan-words, but there is also a distinct effort to avoid them. In France, the Académie française is responsible for the standardisation of the language and often coins new technological terms. Some of them are accepted in practice, in other cases the English loanwords remain predominant. In Quebec, the Office québécois de la langue française has a similar function.
email/mail (in Europe); courriel (mainly in Quebec, but increasingly used in French speaking Europe); informally mél; more formally "courrier électronique"
pourriel - Spam
hameçonnage, phishing - Phishing
télécharger - to download
site web - web site
lien - website hyper-link
base de données - Database
caméra web - Webcam
amorcer, démarrer, booter - to boot
redémarrer, rebooter - to reboot
arrêter, éteindre - to shutdown
amorçable, bootable - Bootable
overclocking, surfréquençage, surcadençage - Overclocking
watercooling: refroidissement à l'eau
tuning PC: case modding
See also: Denglisch
In German, English words are very often used as well:
noun: Computer, Website, Software, E-Mail, Blog
verb: downloaden, booten, crashen
The Icelandic language has its own vocabulary of scientific terms, still English borrowings exist. English or Icelandicised words are mostly used in casual conversations, whereas the Icelandic words might be longer or not widespread.
Polish language words derived from English:
History of computer hardware in Soviet Bloc countries
The English influence on the software industry and the internet in Latin America has borrowed significantly from the Castilian lexicon.
Frequently untranslated, and their Spanish equivalent
email: correo electrónico
mouse (only in Latin America): ratón (mainly in Spain)
webcam: cámara web
website: página web, sitio web
blog: bitácora, 'blog'
Many computing terms in Spanish share a common root with their English counterpart. In these cases, both terms are understood, but the Spanish is preferred for formal use:
link vs enlace or vínculo
net vs red
The early computer software and hardware had very little support for alphabets other than the Latin. As a result of this it was difficult or impossible to represent languages based on other scripts. The ASCII character encoding, created in the 1960s, only supported 256 different characters. With the use of additional software it was possible to provide support for some languages, for instance those based on the Cyrillic alphabet. However, complex-script languages like Chinese or Japanese need more characters than the 256 limit imposed by ASCII. Some computers created in the former USSR had native support for the Cyrillic alphabet.
The wide adoption of Unicode, and UTF-8 on the web, resolved most of these historical limitations. ASCII remains the de facto standard for command interpreters, programming languages and text-based communication protocols.
Mojibake - Common mistakes
See also: Non-English-based programming languages
The syntax of most programming languages uses English keywords, and therefore it could be argued some knowledge of English is required in order to use them. However, it is important to recognize all programming languages are in the class of formal languages. They are very different from any natural language, including English.
Some examples of non-English programming languages:
Although it uses English keywords, Ruby allows the use of Japanese characters in variable names, and other elements of the code.
Chinese: Chinese BASIC
French: LSE, WinDev, Pascal (although the English version is more widespread)
Hebrew: Hebrew Programming Language
Indian Languages: Hindawi Programming System
Many application protocols, especially those depending on widespread standardisation to be effective, use text strings for requests and parameters, rather than the binary values commonly used in lower layer protocols. The request strings are generally based on English words, although in some cases the strings are contractions or acronyms of English expressions, which renders them somewhat cryptic to anyone not familiar with the protocol, whatever their proficiency in English. Nevertheless, the use of word-like strings is a convenient mnemonic device that allows a person skilled in the art (and with sufficient knowledge of English) to execute the protocol manually from a keyboard, usually for the purpose of finding a problem with the service.
FTP: USER, PASS (password), PASV (passive), PORT, RETR (retrieve), STOR (store), QUIT
SMTP: HELO (hello), MAIL, RCPT (recipient), DATA, QUIT
HTTP: GET, PUT, POST, HEAD (headers), DELETE, TRACE, OPTIONS
It is notable that response codes, that is, the strings sent back by the recipient of a request, are typically numeric: for instance, in HTTP (and some borrowed by other protocols)
200 OK request succeeded
301 Moved Permanently to redirect the request to a new address
404 Not Found the requested page does not exist
This is because response codes also need to convey unambiguous information, but can have various nuances that the requester may optionally use to vary its subsequent actions. To convey all such "sub-codes" with alphabetic words would be unwieldy, and negate the advantage of using pseudo-English words. Since responses are usually generated by software they do not need to be mnemonic. Numeric codes are also more easily analysed and categorised when they are processed by software, instead of a human testing the protocol by manual input.
See also: Internationalization and localization
Many personal computers have a BIOS chip, displaying text in English during boot time.
Keyboard shortcuts are usually defined in terms of English keywords such as CTRL+F for find.
English on the World Wide Web
See also: Internet slang
English is the largest language on the World Wide Web, with 27% of internet users. Please refer to the article for Internet linguistic patterns for more details.
Web user percentages usually focus on raw comparisons of the first language of those who access the web. Just as important is a consideration of second- and foreign-language users; i.e., the first language of a user does not necessarily reflect which language he or she regularly employs when using the web.
English-language users appear to be a plurality of web users, consistently cited as around one-third of the overall (near one billion). This reflects the relative affluence of English-speaking countries and high Internet penetration rates in them.
This lead may be eroding due mainly to a rapid increase of Chinese users, which broadly parallels China's advance on other economic fronts. In fact, if first-language speakers are compared, Chinese ought, in time, to outstrip English by a wide margin (837+ million for Mandarin Chinese, 370+ million for English).
First-language users among other relatively affluent countries appear generally stable, the two largest being German and Japanese, which each have between 5% and 10% of the overall share.